Tuesday, December 24, 2019
2. (800 Words for Question Two) John Bogle, in his article Democracy in corporate America, defines capitalism in two different ways, ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism and managerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism. According to Bogle, ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism is defined with the idea that purpose of a business or corporation is to make a profit. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism, Bogle notes, is defined by William Pfaff with the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"the corporation came to be run to profit its managers, in complicity if not conspiracy with accountants and the managers of other corporationsÃ¢â¬ (Bogle, p. 26). These two definitions of ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism and managerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism provide great insight about todayÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate America. The two previous descriptions that John Bogle provides of owners and managers capitalism show us the true difference between the traditional idea of capitalism, and the more modern idea, as William Pfaff describes. In order for the differentiation to be clear, we must understand what Bogle is saying in his descriptions of the two types of capitalism. First, ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism says that the owner(s) of the company have one basic goal, and that is to make a profit, benefiting the owners in a way so to make a return on their investment into the company. So if the idea of capitalism is to make a profit for the company as a whole, then what is managerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism, and how did it originate? Bogle describes a situation that can commonly seen in corporate America, which describes managerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism perfectly.Show MoreRelatedCapitalism And Manager s Capitalism Essay800 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdefines capitalism in two different ways, ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism and managerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism. According to Bogle, ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism is defined with the idea that purpose of a business or corporation is to make a profit. ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism, Bogle notes, is defined by William Pfaff with the idea that Ã¢â¬Å"the corpora tion came to be run to profit its managers, in complicity if not conspiracy with accountants and the managers of other corporationsÃ¢â¬ (Bogle, p. 26). These two definitions of ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalism andRead MoreParadigm Shift of Firms from Capitalism to CSR (Rationale) The integration of social700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesParadigm Shift of Firms from Capitalism to CSR (Rationale) The integration of social responsibilities in business that emerged with the financial capitalists spurred a fierce debate on whether or mot CSR should be included in the corporate objective function. the earliest reference to such criticism appears to be Ghent, who in 1902 criticized this new trend for its similarity to the economic feudalism of the middle Ages, and who argued that CSR was being used as a tool for forestalling public criticismRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility And Its Effects On Consumers And Brand Equity1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbetween the two. As such, Holzinger and Prasada (2013) explored the concept of Slavoj Zizek s neo-Marxist and psychoanalytic-inflected work on the false consciousness of ideology (Zizek, 2000) which can represent how managerÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct CSR with unethical intentions. It suggests that capitalism is a system that is fundamentally fraught in illogicality and that discourse in corporate reports can be strategically constructed as a means to promote market capitalisation. It concludes by stating that discourseRead MoreEmployee Motivation and Capitalism Essay1813 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesfreedom. A Marxist view is that the managers are exploiting the workers and that there is class conflict. This essay will outline and identify if there is a problem with worker motivation, and will introduce a brief description of motivation and capitalism. If problems are identified with worker motivation possible solutions will be provided. The essay will go into detail about Maslow and McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theories X and Y and refer to Taylorism. Lastly a conclusion will be made on the more befitting andRead MoreCorporate Culture, Incentives, Business Ethics, And Goals880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdriven business strategy can be devastating to a service firm such as the Post Office, and hence it is the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role to create a pleasing environment for customers. The incentives video draws multiple controversial points in regards to the responsibilities of a business. A firm has an obligation to both its investors, and towards consumers alike. In fact the core principle of Capitalism itself relies on the concept of a negotiation between buyers and sellers. Therefore, it is crucial for a producerRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Blind Shaft942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsequence of not meeting the standards themselves, when death happens in the mine, the manager only attempts pay compensation money to the relatives of the dead because further investigation causes significant financial loss to the mine. In the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, the idea of buying a life with several thousands of dollars is rooted, contributing to the smooth function of Tang and SongÃ¢â¬â¢s scam. Furthermore, SongÃ¢â¬â¢s action can be explained by the absence of education. Because he is uneducated, Song is unawareRead MoreDesign And Hermeneutic Phenomenology Research Paradig m Has Been Made Above ( Ch 56 )1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswithin an organisation in predicated on their ability to lead, mobilise and direct subordinates. As a result, it might be argued that the model covers a very small element of the overall leadership and management process, focussing exclusively on the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s activity and leadership with their own subordinate team, and missing the larger organisational function of the leader, their entrepreneurial activity, and engagement with supraordinate managers. This is an acknowledged failing, based upon ParsonÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreCritically Discuss the Contribution of the Work of Frederick W. Taylor to Management Thought and Practice. Pay Particular Attention to How His Ideas Were Shaped by the Cultural Context of His Time, and to the Competing Interpretations of His Legacy.2445 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmanagement together, his views on human relations theory (HRT) and its links with people management, the theme of organization cult ure and post-bureaucracy and how it is effecting change management. The final theme I will discuss in my essay is fast capitalism and how it is ending management. While looking at the themes I will also be evaluating GreyÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments within them and try to relate them where applicable to Wren and BedeianÃ¢â¬â¢s book Ã¢â¬Å"The Evolution of Management ThoughtÃ¢â¬ (2009). Grey views on bureaucracyRead MoreThe Major Sub Areas Of Finance1156 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthey also have a broader obligation to society as a whole. 5. Does the goal of shareholder wealth maximization conflict with behaving ethically? Explain. The goals of shareholders wealth maximization does not conflict with behaving ethically. The managerÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to maximize the interest of the shareholder and give secondary consideration stakeholders interest. There are competing principles that also suggest that the manager must act to maximize the total stakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, which included employeesRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Solyndra Solar Energy Panels1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhether the government should or should not help Solyndra, nevertheless, the government ended up trying to financially guarantee the corporation s security. In doing so, this would mean misuse of public funds since the government has no obligation to capitalism. The government went on to approve a loan to financial guarantee the corporation regardless of the cautionary measures the staff of the administration and financial planners (Weiner, 2012). In 2011, the Committee on Energy and Commerce released
Monday, December 16, 2019
Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"Human Resources ManagementÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Industrial relationsÃ¢â¬ has different concepts about the determination and functions of the both spheres. The essay deliberates the comparison and contrast on the key features of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations in academic fields. Definitions of terms HRM and IR will be identified through the review of the origin and development of these two areas. We will write a custom essay sample on Hrm and Ir or any similar topic only for you Order Now Moreover, I have pointed out the theoretical scope of the two subjects and key features of HRM and IR. Finally, there is comparison and contrast between given subjects through the historical retrospective and paper review. Definition of Industrial Relations Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we mention the fact that Industrial Relations have become a subject of scientific analysis since the end of the nineteenth century, when Sidney and Beatrice Webb (1984) couple published their studies of the regulation of employment in Britain. According to Dale Yoder,Ã¢â¬ industrial relationsÃ¢â¬ describe Ã¢â¬Å"relationships between managements and employees or among employees and their organisations that characterise or grow out of employment. The study of industrial relations may therefore be described as a study of the institutions of job regulationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â suggested Flanders (1965, 10). It is prevailed for a time is beyond satisfaction of the academic study at present. Ã¢â¬Å"The view that IR is the study of processes of control over work relations, and among these processes, those involving coll ective worker organization and action are of particular concern is more adaptable to generalise specific and precisely for the subjectÃ¢â¬ . Hyman, 1975) Definition of Human Resource Management Progression of the Human relations movement in the USA was the key point of the HRM terminologyÃ¢â¬â¢s emergency. There have been a large amount of published studies investigating the definition of HRM in diverse standing and approaches, since the first British book on HRM published in the late 1980s, which was notably known as New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Storey 1989). Storey (1989) considers that HRM can be regarded as Ã¢â¬Å"set of interrelated policies with an ideological and philosophical underpinningÃ¢â¬ . However, He determined HRM as a specific approach to employment management which aims to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of culture, structural and personnel techniques, which is a comprehensive understanding of HRM. Storey (2007). Sisson (1990) sees HRM of four aspects of employment practice: an integration of HR policies with business planning; a shift in responsibility for HR issues form personnel specialists to line managers; a shift from the collectivism of management and, finally, an emphasis on commitment has further understanding of HRM. Ackers (2003) provided a general term on the definition of HRM, Ã¢â¬Å"HRM refers to all those activities associated with the management of work and people in firms and in other formal organisationsÃ¢â¬ . Basic Research Interest of Human Resource Management The emergence of courses and models in HRM in universities and colleges is related to the fact that two influential journals, Human Resource Management Journal, edited by Keith Sisson at Warwick University, the International Journal of Human Resource Management, edited by Michael Poole at Cardiff were launched in 1990. The amount of literature was increased. Among these papers two appreciable theories is predominant leading, Fombrun et al (1984) matching model and the Harvard framework. Matching model focused on the connection between organizational strategy and HRM, in the meanwhile Frombrun et al divided HRM into four integral parts Ã¢â¬â selection, development, appraisal and reward stressing the significance of efficiency of work performance enhancement. (Marchington, 2005) On the other hand, the Harvard framework (Beer et al, 1985) involve six basic components with a broader expand from the inside out , that is, situational factors, stakeholder interests, policy choices, outcomes, long-term consequences and a feedback loop. However, neither of the models pays close attention to the respects of employment relationship. John StoreyÃ¢â¬â¢s (2007) model is worth considering framework in HRM studies. Four key elements are summarized as foundational structure of HRM, that is beliefs and assumptions, strategic qualities, critical role of managers and key levers which activate HRM as an essentially tool and techniques for use by practitioners. However, currently HR changes and extends its functions beyond simple administration and personnel management. This area is becoming one of the strategic and reactive activity in the management of both organizations and other bodies. Basic Theory of Industrial Relations Colling et al (2010) comment that Ã¢â¬Å"Academic industrial relations is now outdatedÃ¢â¬ either the problem of the Ã¢â¬Å"human factorÃ¢â¬ in work have all been solved, or they are better addressed by new approaches such as Ã¢â¬Å"human resource managementÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"organisational behaviourÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢, however, in the statement by the British Universities Industrial Relations Association (BUIRA), they strongly disagree the claim. BUIRA) During the initiative academic research in IR, predominant focus upon collective institutions and processes which embody trade unions, collective bargaining and strikes are the mainstream scope of IR study. Compared with the origin IR, modern IR emphasized on the experience of work, both individual and collective, and with all sources of the rules that govern the employment r elationship. Therefore, IR was widely regarded as having two major subdivisions within it. The first dealt with the management of labour, the second with collective bargaining and methods of workforce governance (Russell Sage Foundation, 1919). It should be pointed out, that industrial relations today are in Ã¢â¬Å"crisisÃ¢â¬ . In academia, its traditional positions are threatened on one side by the dominance of mainstream economics and organizational behaviour, and on the other by postmodernism. The importance of work, however, is stronger than ever, and the lessons of industrial relations remain vital. Purcell) Comparison and contrast of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations The interrelation between HRM and IR is complicated. From the one sight, HRM was considered as one of the branch of IR in the early 1960s for majority of scientists, then in modern conditions HRM has largely been regarded as a separate subject underlying distinguish perspectives and divergent points of the field. However, HRM and IR do have some parallels and common ground in employmen t issues, concerns about personnel and departments and humane labour. From the above, it can be concluded that to a large extent HRM has an Ã¢â¬Å"insideÃ¢â¬ view of the problem according to the employment, highlighting and labour issues. While IR takes an Ã¢â¬Å"externalÃ¢â¬ prospective with an emphasis on workers and communities. The purpose and functions are not one and the same for the two spheres. The main purpose of personnel management is an organizational effectiveness using an instrumental approach to the promotion of employees nd interest. As for the IR, the goal Ã¢â¬Å"is a combination of organizational performance and employee well-being, as well as the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ interest priorities. Generally, IR provides a multi-layer discernment of employment relationships and interconnections between the workplace, the company, the sector, the national regulatory framework in the light of multi-disciplinary approach involving sociology, political science, economics, history and law. HR assumes conflict not inevitable and can be minimized by management; IR sees conflicts as inevitable requiring third-party intervention. HRM and IR are distinguished in various respects with different standpoints and approaches. (Sisson) Frequently, HRM teaching accepts managementÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives uncritically, concentrates on activities at company level without exploring the societal and institutional environment, and has its disciplinary basis primarily in psychology and organizational sociology rather than the social sciences more broadly. Despite of the inevitable irreconcilable antagonisms between the two subjects, there is a closely link of HR and IR providing a complementary foundation of the exchange and development of the employment issues. (Ackers) Conclusion The essay discusses the definition of HRM and IR and significant features in academic fields largely through an historical analysis of the two fieldsÃ¢â¬â¢ respective origins and development. HRM and IR fields are distinguished by numerous differences in their approach to research and practice. Reference Ackers, P. and Willkinson, A. 2003. Understanding Work and Employment, Oxford University Press Bach, S(ed), 2005, Managing Human Resources, 4th edition, Balckwell Publishing Boxall, P and Purcell, J, 2008, Strategy and HRM, 2nd edition, Palgrave Bruce E. K, 2001,Human resources and industrial relations Commonalities and differences, Human Resource Review, 11(2001) 339-374 BUIRA 2008. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the point of Industrial Relations? A statement by the British Universities Industrial Relations Association Colling, T. and Terry, M. 2010. Work , the employment relationship and the field of Industrial RelationsÃ¢â¬â¢, in Colling, T and Terry, M (eds), Industrial Relations: theory and practice (3rd ed), Chinchester:Wiley, 3-25 Guest, D. (1987) Ã¢â¬ËHuman resource management and industrial relationsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, 24(5), September: 503-521 Hyman, R. 1975. A Marxist Introduction to Industrial Relations. Basingsotoke: MacMillan. Paul Edwards edit , Industrial Rela tions Theory Practice in Britain, Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1995 Marchington. M and Wikinson. A, 2005, Human Resource at work, 3th editon, CIPD, London Miller, P. 1987) Ã¢â¬ËStrategic industrial relations and human resource management Ã¢â¬â distinction, definition and recognitionÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Management Studies, 24(4) July:347-361 Sisson, K. (1990) Ã¢â¬ËIntroducing the Human Resource Management JournalÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Resource Management Journal, 1(1):1-11 Sisson K. Ã¢â¬Å"In Search of HRMÃ¢â¬ , op. cit. at 209 Strorey, J(ed), 2007, HRM : A critical text. 3rd edition, Routledge Redman, T . Wilkinson. A, 2001, Contemporary Human Resource Management, Financial Times Yoder Dale, 1948, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations. 3rd edition, New York, Prentice-Hall,Inc. How to cite Hrm and Ir, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
The unconscious is hypothetically a region of the mind that contains desires, recollections, fears, feelings and thoughts that are prevented from expression in the conscious awareness. One of the most influential philosophers who made theories about the unconscious and its aspects is of Sigmund Freud. Freud distinguished between three different concepts of the unconscious: descriptive unconsciousness, dynamic unconsciousness, and the system unconsciousness. The descriptive unconsciousness refers to all those things in mental life in which people are not instinctively aware of. The dynamic unconsciousness refers to mental processes and contents, which are removed from the consciousness as a result of contradictory attitudes. The system unconsciousness indicates the idea that when mental processes are repressed, they become organized different from those of a conscious mind, such as displacement. Freud eventually abandoned of the system unconscious and replaced it with the ego, super-ego, and id concepts. Throughout his career, however he retained the descriptive and dynamic concepts of unconsciousness. Freud also believed that the unconscious was a storage facility for all repressed sexual desires. With this in mind, he created a theory called The Oedipus Complex. The Oedipus complex is a theory, which implies hatred and a death wish for the parent of the same sex (father for boys and mothers for girls) and love/sexual attachments towards the parent of the opposite sex. Freud states that at some point, the child realizes the differences between their mother and their father. With this, the child learns to understand gender because they come to grasp that they are similar to one of the parents and different from the other. When the child finally comprehends this, he/she feels as though the opposite sex is affectionate to another person besides them (their same sex parent). Thus, the child Ã¢â¬Å"competesÃ¢â¬ with the same sex parent for the opposite sex parents love and fondness. Freud believed that these feelings are deeply fused into the unconsciousness of every person, but are suppressed. Another influential philosopher who gathered theories on the concept of unconsciousness is Carl Jung. Jung studied under Freud, but eventually broke off and made his own theories and opinions about different concepts, such as the unconscious. Jung believed that there were two levels of unconsciousness: personal unconscious and collective unconscious. The personal unconscious is interior to the ego (a personÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of themselves) and corresponds to a mix of Freuds unconscious and preconscious. Containing elements of the outside world and of personal experiences repressed by the ego, the contents of the personal unconscious can be accessed by therapy, art and cultural expression. According to Jung, the collective unconscious is part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s unconscious that is common between all human beings as opposed to personal unconscious, which is unique to each individual. Jung also believed that the collective unconsciousness contains archetypes, which are forms or symbols that are apparent by all people of all cultures. The five main archetypes that were associated with the collective unconscious are the persona, animus, anima, shadow and self. The persona is the mask presented by each individual to society but it may or may not conceal the real personality. The anima is the feminine part of a man, which evolves as a result of a mans experience with women but also recognizes the bisexual nature of all human beings. The animus is the masculine part of a woman. The shadow is the reverse of the outward personality we show to the world. The self is the most important archetype and holds all the other systems together. With these archetypes, Jung felt that we should know ourselves from the inside as well as the outside. Both Jung and FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories on the unconscious differed in many ways. Freud described the unconscious as a container underlying the conscious mind, whose task is to contain unwanted and un-encountered events, feelings, thoughts and experiences of the disliked conscious mind. Jung however added to this theory by proposing two layers of the unconscious: a personal unconscious, right under the conscious mind, taking in personal psychic contents and the collective unconscious which contains the accumulating experience of all humanity. Another theory that both Jung and Freud had different opinions on was sexuality. In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s speculation, he claims the force of life is driven by sexuality and the original unconscious contains nothing but feelings, thoughts, experience and frustrations of resulting unhappy sexual desires. Jung however believes there is much more to life than sexuality, which underlies the process of individuation and constant search for meaning. Jung also thinks the unconscious has a compensatory regulating function, aiming at healing and growth. In conclusion, I personally favor JungÃ¢â¬â¢s version of the unconscious mind rather than FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s. I feel as though Jung has a better understanding of the human mind in many ways that everyone can benefit from. Although Freud had good theories and speculations about the unconscious mind and sexuality, I did not grasp a connection between my thoughts and FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s speculations. With that being said, I can definitely understand why the mind is very difficult to study.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
A look at the Sanyo Companys structures and internal systems. This is a paper that analyzes Sanyos corporate marketing strategies against competitors. The author examines the companys mission, major competitors, technological environment, marketing strategies and objectives, target market and developing product strategy. Sanyo Groups of companies believe in environmental friendly product management. This stems from its mission statement, which identifies its goal as: To become an indispensable element and source of pride in the communities where it does business, Sanyo actively searches out opportunities to assist local government, charity organizations and other special groups through philanthropic activity in North America. [www.sanyo.com]. Of the top three major competitors that Sanyo faces are from GE, an American based company and Philips Electronics and Sony both are Japanese counterparts. When Sanyo was first introduced in the American market GE was the dominant player whose popularity among consumers created market barriers to industry. We will write a custom essay sample on The Sanyo Company or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Today, however, GE had change its strategy to include production of aircraft engines, locomotives as well as equipment and appliances. Diversity therefore is GEs arena [http://www.hoovers.com/co/capsule/6/0,2163,43946,00.html].
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Macbeth, Tragic Hero Essay Example Macbeth, Tragic Hero Paper Macbeth, Tragic Hero Paper Essay Topic: Macbeth Trifles Macbeth gives us a classic example of the literary definition of a tragic hero. The title character is a Thane, of high birth, and an influential leader whose decisions affect many others. He possesses a number of admirable qualities, among these honesty and conscience. Along with these positive attributes, he also possesses a fatal flaw, namely ambition. And like so many other tragic heroes, he rapidly falls from grace before encountering a moment of enlightenment. The first indication of Macbeths moral demise is plainly illustrated from the very first scene of the play, where the three witches are gathered amid an ominous backdrop that of stormy weather, signalled by thunder and lightning. The tempestuous weather serves as an indication of change and upheaval of a negative nature, so that from the outset, it is evident that all shall not run smoothly during the course of the life of the title character. The witches final words of the scene, Fair is foul and foul is fair, are eerily echoed by Macbeth later on, when he remarks, So foul and fair a day establishing a subconscious link between them. Macbeth can be described as a tragic hero since he possesses certain attributes of character and circumstances, which conform to the traditionalistic view of the literary tragic hero. Some of these characteristics are shown to us in the second scene through the eyes of Ross and the Sergeant. The latter ironically describes the Thane of Glamis as brave Macbeth well he deserves that name. Macbeth is portrayed as a noble and valiant fighter, and along with Banquo, is proclaimed the man of the hour. The Sergeant creates an immaculate picture of Macbeth, one that is larger than life. Shortly afterwards, the same man is described by Ross as the husband of Bellona, the goddess of war. The witches first encounter with Macbeth and Banquo is where the first seeds of ambition are planted in Macbeth. They use their prophetic words to seduce Macbeth into pondering the advantages of kingship, whilst Banquo remains sceptical and distant. The imperatives that Macbeth uses to try to stall these vindictive creatures reflect his perplexity. He uses words such as Stay, tell and Speak. When Ross and Angus appear and hand Cawdors title to Macbeth, Banquo remarks silently, what! Can the devil speak true? showing that, unlike Macbeth, he has associated the witches with evil. The encounter on the moor signals the beginning of the protagonists downfall. Banquo then advises Macbeth wisely, saying that: The instruments of darkness tell us truths, Win us with honest trifles, to betrays In deepest consequence. The message Banquo is trying to get across is that in order to bring about our destruction, sometimes the forces of evil tell us simple truths, leading us to trust them. They then deceive us when it matters the most. Macbeth does not heed this warning, and later he and Lady Macbeth will sacrifice all they have for something that they think will make them happy. They do not count the blessings that they already have, and, consequently, fall into a trap of evil, deceit and despair. From then on Macbeths thoughts are set on kingship. He will become obsessed with the imperial theme. By professing that nothing is/But what is not we are fleetingly shown his single-mindedness, as he only desires the one thing which he does not have. Yet for the moment he adopts this sensible attitude: If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, Without my stir. Subsequently, we encounter an event where Duncan is to bestow upon Macbeth his new title of Thane of Cawdor. Speaking of the traitorous Cawdor, he makes an important and meaningful statement, saying, Theres no art To find the minds construction in the face: He was a gentleman on whom I built An absolute trust. Duncan has already started to build An absolute trust upon Macbeth, the new Thane of Cawdor. Here the irony lies in that Duncan has made the same mistake twice he has twice put his faith in a backstabber. Later on, Duncan makes an important statement, which is the turning point in Macbeths fall from grace it is his first plotting of murder. As soon as Duncan proclaims Malcolm as heir to the throne, Macbeth realises that he must kill both the king and his successor so that the third prophecy may be fulfilled. In order to magnify the horror of what Macbeth will do, Shakespeare establishes an almost father-son relationship between Duncan and Macbeth. This is why Macbeth asks that light not see his black and deep desires. It is an ominous wish, and it is uncannily similar to the language used by the three witches, the representatives of the evil in all of us. We then come to our first introduction to an encounter with Lady Macbeth, where she is reading Macbeths letter, in which he calls her my dearest partner of greatness. This reflects the ambitious nature of the couple. Lady Macbeth has guessed what it is that Macbeth is considering in order to gain the crown. Yet she has a very profound psychological understanding of Macbeth, and says that his nature is too full of the milk of human kindness/To catch the nearest way. She knows that Macbeth has a conscience, and that it will not be easily dispelled. She is also aware that he is morally upright and too sensitive to do something that is wrong. Lady Macbeth, nevertheless, is unlike her spouse. She is the decision-maker: domineering, manipulative and smooth talking. She abounds with self-confidence and has no qualms whatsoever. The latter is especially evident when, in the same scene, a messenger has just been to see her to tell her of Duncans arrival at their home that very evening. She invokes evil spirits, so that they may take away her maternal instincts, love and tenderness all that makes her a woman so she can have the determination and coldness to carry off the intended evil deeds. Lady Macbeth then asks that her evil deeds be hidden and obscured from all that is good and right. The foreboding image of darkness plays a prominent role throughout the play as a force closely attached with horror and malice. Upon Macbeths arrival, his wife tells him that [His] face, my thane, is as a book where men/May read strange matters. The eye is the mirror of the soul, and through this medium, Macbeth is plainly expressing his feelings. He must put on a false pretence if he wishes to succeed in his crusade. Lady Macbeth further utters words of advice to Macbeth, when she tells him that his hand and his tongue must look like the innocent flower/But be the serpent undert. The hand is that with which you convey sincerity or acceptance of a decision, whilst the tongue expresses your inner emotions. He must revoke all his honest feelings and give way to ruthlessness, malice and heartlessness. Duncans arrival at Macbeths castle follows, and both he and Banquo paradoxically describe the castle as something resembling paradise. Macbeth is not upon hand to greet the king, under Lady Macbeths orders. She is now in charge. Speaking on behalf of all present, Duncan tells Lady Macbeth that they love him highly. He, ironically, is referring to the new Thane of Cawdor. Macbeths first soliloquy is presented to us at the end of the first act. It is the first opportunity he has had to carefully deliberate murder. He is presented as a man about to succumb to temptation; yet from the outset, he is acutely aware that if he escapes temporal judgement, he shall not escape divine justice. He wishes that there could be no negative consequences resulting from the proposed assassination, but he knows that this is well nigh impossible. Macbeth also knows that there is not a single justifiable reason why he should kill the good man who has treated him as his own. The only purpose he can find for which to kill Duncan is Vaulting ambition, which he knows only preludes a fall. Ambition is Macbeths tragic flaw. After his deliberation, Macbeth tells his wife that he does not wish to partake in the proposed deed, having realised that he does not want to risk anything. Lady Macbeth, however, has her mind made up, and uses her husbands sense of masculinity, male independence and power to push him manipulatively towards committing murder. Macbeth finally agrees, fully aware of future consequences and the callousness of the deed. There is no compelling force driving him he will kill a man for selfish, materialistic reasons. He is to commit an indefensible crime, since there is no moral, political or personal reason for it that is justifiable. He is a tragic hero because he knows what he is doing is wrong, yet he fails to realise that his future happiness will rest on the outcome of that fatal night. Macbeth is waiting for the signal to murder Duncan at the outset of the second scene. Speaking with Banquo, whom he encounters, Macbeth is nervous and jittery in both speech and manner. He begins to hallucinate, seeing a dagger in his hand, proving that his imagination is beyond control. He wonders if the vision proceeds from the heat-oppressed brain, showing that he is both feverish and under pressure. Macbeth is dealing in ambiguous terms. Part of Macbeths soliloquy is as so: Now oer the one half-world Nature seems dead, and wicked dreams abuse The curtaind sleep; witchcraft celebrates Pale Hecates offerings; and witherd murder, Alarumd by his sentinel, the wolf, Whose howls his watch, thus with his stealthy pace, With Tarquins ravishing strides, toward his design Move like a ghost. All the images in the above extract come from the world of the occult and the supernatural, showing that Macbeth is indeed possessed by the idea of kingship, and is set on fulfilling the third prophecy. He is adopting a machiavellian attitude, believing that the end justifies the means. Shakespeare is rapidly revealing the murder in its full horror, with the emphasis being on the despicable nature of the act. The moment after the murder is the beginning of the aftermath. Macbeth has committed the deed, because Lady Macbeth says that Had he not resembled/[Her] father as he slept, [she] had donet. Macbeth has undergone a horrifying, haunting and harrowing experience that will leave him emotionally scarred for life. Macbeth says of himself: I had most need of blessing, and Amen/Stuck in my throat. He is beyond forgiveness and redemption. Glamis hath murderd sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more, Macbeth shall sleep no more! These words, uttered by Macbeth, are a prediction of the insomnia he shall suffer as a result of what he has done. By killing Duncan, Macbeth has also killed his own conscience and peace of mind, and so gained a guilt-ridden conscience. Macbeth has forfeited all chances of happiness. Sleep is innocence; therefore, Macbeth covets sleep because when you sleep, you do not think. Being awake makes him relive that fatal night repeatedly in his mind to the point of madness. He wishes only for his death, so he can be rid of his sins. Macbeth has lost his zest for life life is hollow and meaningless after the murder and until his own death. At this point, Macbeth is rapidly falling from grace. He will become ignoble, cynical and ruthless, stopping at nothing to hide his crime. Macbeth goes on to murder many more possibly innocent men in order to determine that the blame for Duncans death should not fall upon him. The honest, noble, morally upright hero we were introduced to at the start of the play is now an unrecognisable monster set on keeping the one thing which has destroyed his life and those of many others. Macbeths perception of the magnitude of the crime is such that he thinks his hands will stain the waters of the sea with his blood. Yet Lady Macbeth states that A little water clears us of this deed; showing that she is confident and is unrepentant. Her husband, in stark contrast, says of the knocking at the castle entrance, Wake Duncan with thy knocking! I wish thou couldst! This reflects the level of Macbeths regret he has discovered a side of himself he wishes had remained undiscovered. The Porters oration in the third scene is a revealing and interesting one. By mentioning a hell-gate, he subconsciously creates a parallel between Dunsinane and hell. Macbeth initiates many atrocities there, which makes hell a fitting label for Dunsinane. He refers to a farmer that hanged himself on the expectation of plenty a story which is parallel to Macbeths life. The Porter also identifies greed and avarice as destructive forces, and he shows how easily man can be equivocated. Macbeth should know that he can equivocate people on earth, but never in heaven. Lennoxs description of storms, wind and strange screams of death reinforces the Elizabethan concept of hierarchy, where the king, is divine, holy and infallible. If regicide is committed, then it will shake the foundations of Nature itself. The unruly weather is due to Nature manifesting itself because of this perversion of order. When Macduff comes with news of the murder, it profoundly affects Macbeth. Had I but died an hour before this chance, I had livd a blessed time; for, from this instant, Theres nothing serious in mortality, All is but toys; renown and grace is dead, The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees Is left this vault to brag of. Macbeth believes that if he had died an hour before the murder, his life would have been blessed; as it is, he shall be tormented for all his living days thereafter. He compares the earth to a wine cellar from which the best wine has been drawn, so that it can boast only of the dregs. Further on, we find that Macbeth is quite inept at lying and covering up, since he unnecessarily goes on about what a good man Duncan was, and how unjust and cruel the killer must be. He speaks so unconvincingly that Lady Macbeth finds herself being forced to faint to take the attention away from her spouse. As the scene closes, and Malcolm and Donalbain are considering fleeing the country, the latter utters a perceptive and intensely relevant metaphorical truth: Theres daggers in mens smiles. We then arrive at an ominously frightening prologue to Macbeths reign. He has committed a metaphysical crime, so Nature is topsy-turvy, and chaos reigns. Ross tells us that by the clock tis day, /And yet dark night strangles the travelling lamp [the sun]. For the rest of the play, Scotland will be in a state of perpetual darkness, which brings home the abominable nature of Macbeths deed. The roles of predator and prey have been reversed, with news of a falcon having been eaten by an owl. Horses have become carnivorous and have begun to eat each other. It is ironic that the hero who saved Scotland at the start of the play is now the one who is bringing about its destruction. The third act opens with Banquo pondering the recent mysterious event, in particular how the witches prophecies all came true, yet he suspects Macbeth of receiving the crown through dishonest means. Macbeths once good name is in disrepute. Macbeths ambition is insatiable, and therefore he wants to control time and destiny. He feels inferior to Banquo, as he tells Lady Macbeth: There is none but he Whose being I do fear; and under him My genius is rebukd, as, it is said, Mark Antonys was by Caesar. Speaking of the witches, Macbeth says, Upon my head they placd a fruitless crown / And put a barren sceptre in my gripe. He feels that his kingship is worthless if it is to be that Banquos children will inherit the crown, and not his own. His ambition keeps him yearning for more when he has already achieved his objective. Evidence of Macbeths blind ambition is the notion that he believes that he cannot change the witches prophecies; yet, he believes that he can change those given to Banquo. He will twist the prophecy round to suit himself, and so further upset the balance. At this point, Macbeth is increasingly becoming a lonesome, solitary creature. Perhaps we, the audience, could have removed some blame from Macbeth for Duncans murder, since Lady Macbeth was the driving force, and pushed her husband into committing regicide. Macbeth, however, cannot be forgiven for Banquos murder because it is he who initiates it, without any help from Lady Macbeth. In fact, Lady Macbeth knows nothing of her husbands scheme. Ironically, Macbeth uses the same intimidation tactics that his wife used on him in order to convince the murderers that Banquos murder would be a beneficial one to them all. At this stage, it may occur to us that we have yet to see a scene where Macbeth is happy. He has obtained the one thing that he desired the most, yet he is miserable because of it. He blames Banquo for his problems, yet he should be blaming himself. Macbeth is sick, unhappy and spiralling into the realms of evil. This is clearly evinced by his making use of low-life characters for his dirty work. A particularly cruel move on the central characters part is ordering that Fleance, along with his father, also be killed. Macbeth despot, tyrant and dictator is sending ruthless adults to kill an innocent child. What little heart there was in this man is now practically extinguished. The second scene is there to show us how far apart Macbeth and Lady Macbeth have grown. Macbeth has an empty title; he is unpopular and unloved. Lady Macbeth, addressing her spouse, realises that Noughts had, alls spent, /Where our desire is got without content. They have both spent their happiness, marriage, peace of mind, sleep and friends in exchange for nothing. She continues: Tis safer to be that which we destroy /Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy. She has declared that the devil you know is better than the one you dont. There has been a breakdown in communication between the pair, as Lady Macbeth asks why her husband keeps alone so much. In his reply, is the following: Better be with the dead, Whom we, to gain our peace, have sent to peace, Than on the torture of the mind to lie In restless ecstasy. Duncan is in his grave; After lifes fitful fever he sleeps well; Treason has done its worst: nor steel, nor poison, Malice domestic, foreign levy, nothing Can touch him further. He envies Duncan, his predecessor because he is in an eternal slumber. He now sees life as a succession of obstacles, something to be endured, and not enjoyed. Ironically, he tells Lady Macbeth: We must make our faces vizards to our hearts, Disguising what they are. There has been a role reversal, since this is what Lady Macbeth used to say to him. They must have hard, impenetrable looks. Macbeth also tells her: Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill /So, prithee, go with me. He has convinced his wife by telling her that deeds that are started by evil become stronger with more evil. Macbeth is now in possession of a contaminated mind that has been poisoned by the witches. In what he thinks and says are references to the world of the occult and the supernatural, such as scorpions. He is obsessed with crime and evil. Banquos murder does not tell us much of Macbeth, only that he has sent another murderer to make sure that the job is done. He trusts no one. Fleances escape creates yet another problem for the unhappy king. Subsequently, upon hearing the news of the boys escape, Macbeth says: But now I am cabind, cribbd, confind, bound in To saucy doubts and fears. He feels trapped in by intruding thoughts, those that he has created himself. Macbeth is afraid of consequence, which is why he becomes distracted at the news. The murderer tells Macbeth that Banquo is dead, with twenty trenched gashes on his head. Banquo has been hacked and torn apart brutally and extremely violently. This horrendous picture shows the violent and ruthless nature Macbeth has developed of late. Then we witness the second time Macbeths imagination plays tricks on him, when he sees the ghost of Banquo sitting at the dinner table. In Shakespeare, ghosts are seen when the main character has a guilty conscience. Lady Macbeth chastises and mocks her spouse to rouse him out of his stupor, again asking him, Are you a man? More evidence of Macbeths poisoned mind surfaces when he says, If charnel-houses and our graves must send Those that we bury back, our monuments Shall be the maws of kites. Shortly afterwards, Macbeth toasts Banquo thus: I drink to the general joy of the whole table, And to our dear friend Banquo, whom we miss; Would he were here! to all, and him, we thirst, And all to all. He is being hypocritical and lying through his teeth, yet he still manages to keep face after Banquos murder, unlike during the aftermath of Duncans murder. When he sees the ghost again Lady Macbeth mocks him, but he replies, What man dare, I dare, meaning that he is not afraid of physical danger, but he is afraid of the supernatural. Macbeth is a dictator who is paranoid, insecure and apprehensive. He suspects everyone, and trusts no one. He feels as if he is constantly under threat, yet if Macbeth fears no physical danger, then occult forces intimidate Macbeth. He has sunk so low that he has a spy in every mans house. He is losing all the humanity that he ever had inside of him. He is also worried about Macduff, as evinced in these lines: For mine own good All causes shall give way: I am in blood Steppd in so far, that, should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go oer. He resolves to visit the witches, and in the closing line of the scene, he utters a frighteningly ominous assertion: We are yet but young in deed. The former Thane of Cawdor has just begun his catalogue of horrors. Succeeding this declaration, we behold Hecate and the witches, who are on the moor To trade and traffic with Macbeth / In riddles and affairs of death. This is yet another example of their cold and unfeeling nature they are toying with Macbeth. However, Hecate makes an astute comment describing Macbeths character, saying that he Loves for his own ends. That is to say, that he does not love evil for its own sake, but only for what it can do for him.
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Mysterious Moon of Makemake As weve explored in other stories, the outer solar system is really the new frontier of space exploration. This region, also calledÃ¢â¬â¹Ã the Kuiper Belt, is populated with many icy, distant and small worlds that were once completely unknown to us. Pluto is the largest among them known (so far), and was visited in 2015 by the New Horizons mission.Ã The Hubble Space Telescope has the visual acuity to make out tiny worlds in the Kuiper Belt. For example, it resolved the moons of Pluto, which are very small. In its exploration of the Kuiper Belt, HST spotted a moon orbiting a world smaller than Pluto called Makemake. Makemake was discovered in 2005 via ground-based observations and is one of five known dwarf planets in the solar system. Its name comes from the natives of Easter Island, who saw Makemake as the creator of humanity and a god of fertility. Makemake was discovered shortly after Easter, and so the discoverers wanted to use a name in keeping with the word. The moon of Makemake is called MK 2, and it covers a pretty wide orbit around its parent body. Hubble spotted this little moon as it was about 13,000 miles away from Makemake. The world Makemake itself is only about 1434 kilometers (870 miles) wide and was discovered in 2005 via ground-based observations, and then further observed with HST. MK2 is perhaps only 161 kilometers (100 miles) across, so finding this tiny little world around a small dwarf planet was quite an accomplishment. What Does Makemakes Moon Tell us? When Hubble and other telescopes discover worlds in the distant solar system, they deliver a treasure trove of data to planetary scientists. At Makemake, for example, they can measure the length of the moons orbit. That allows researchers to calculate MK 2s orbit. As they find more moons around Kuiper Belt objects, planetary scientists can make some assumptions about the likelihood of other worlds having satellites of their own. In addition, as scientists study MK 2 in greater detail, they can figure out more about its density. That is, they can determine whether its made of rock or a rock-ice mix, or is an all-ice body. In addition, the shape of MK 2s orbit will tell them something about where this moon came from, that is, was it captured by Makemake, or did it form in place? Its history is likely very ancient, dating back to the origin of the solar system. Whatever we learn about this moon will also tell us something about conditions in the early epochs of solar system history, whe n worlds were forming and migrating. Ã Whats It Like on This Distant Moon? We dont really know all the details of this very distant moon, yet. It will take years of observations to nail down its atmospheric and surface compositions. Although planetary scientists dont have an actual picture of the surface of MK 2, they know enough to present us with an artists concept of what it might look like. It appears to have a very dark surface, likely due to discoloration by ultraviolet from the Sun and loss of bright, icy material to space. That little factoid comes NOT from a direct observation, but from an interesting side-effect of observing Makemake itself. Planetary scientists studied Makemake in infrared light and kept seeing a few areas that seemed warmer than they should be. It turns out what they may have been seeing as dark warmer patches were likely the dark-colored moon itself.Ã The realm of the outer solar system and the worlds it contains have a lot of hidden information about what conditions were like when the planets and moons were forming. Thats because this region of space is a veritable deep-freeze. It preserves ancient ices in much the same state they were when they formed during the birth of the Sun and planets.Ã Yet, that doesnt mean things dont change out there. On the contrary; there is plenty of change in the Kuiper Belt. On some worlds, such as Pluto, there ARE processes that heat and change the surface. That means that worlds DO change in ways that scientists are just beginning to understand. No longer does the term frozen wasteland mean that the region is dead. It simply means that temperatures and pressures out in the Kuiper Belt result in very different-looking and behaving worlds. Studying the Kuiper Belt is an ongoing process. There are many, many worlds out there to find- and eventually explore. Hubble Space Telescope, as well as several ground-based observatories are the front line of Kuiper Belt studies. Eventually, the James Webb Space Telescope will be set to work observing this region too, helping astronomers locate and chart the many bodies that still live out in the solar systems deep freeze.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
BCCI and White Collar Crime - Essay Example But, success was not the only step for BCCI's fate. Price Waterhouse was asked to carry inquiry in March, 1991. It was 24th June, 1991 when they submitted the Sandstorm Report to Bank of England stating that BCCI had engaged in fraud case. Main capital base to BCCI were virtual oil-rich Arab leaders who acted to be the investor but, in reality they were working as nominees. Bank since its beginning attracted people to deposit their funds by pretending that they have more capital which in reality was not true. It used to use the deposits in order to meet the expenses. Even it forced its own shareholders to participate in this drama. Major actions that resulted into frauds by BCCI were enlisted by New York District Attorney. According to them the important points are: Middle East personalities included their names and funds to BCCI as an investor which in effect turned to be flaw because their funding was based on guaranteed no-risk return instead of actual sponsor at risk. After getting the request from Bank of England, Price Waterhouse presented its report on BCCI known as Sandstorm Report. As per the report, BCCI committed several mistakes and did many unofficial activities that are out of one company's ethics. Price Waterhouse persons collected records from banks of various countries, reviewed them and interviewed in some cases, finally formed one draft keeping all key points there. During their scrutiny they found that BCCI did not record $600 million of BCCI's deposit. It first knocked the Price Waterhouse audit persons. Among the other types of frauds described by audit include: manipulation of their account at the time of non-performing loan, fabricated profit, hidden losses, setting up of untrue loans for repurchasing shares, cheating of deposits, unreal transactions and charges, showing nominees as capitalists, illegal repurchasing platform for shareholders, bad investment, missing of standardized procedure of records, artificial customer loa ns and most important fallacious audit confirmation (Price Waterhouse, 1987). After losing money for the reason of poor lending operations, instead of accepting provisions for losses they just simply cheated them. Apart from that BCCI used to manipulate their accounts. Actual reason for this manipulation was make the bank appear to be a good profitable and reputed institution than it was which helped it to get security for its deposits. With these approaches when condition of BCCI was worse, made it worst after the loss of $500 million in 1985. That loss was only due to commodity trading undertaken through Capcom. Along with the numbered accounts in order to manipulate accounts through back-to-back transactions they used to use "managers ledgers." It was such a bad activity that the person keeping the records even forgets which person made which transaction. In most of the cases, none of the authority was able to identify either the name of borrower or credit officer responsible for controlling the accounts (Price Waterhouse report to BCCI, 1986). Price
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Lizzie Borden Not Guilty - Research Paper Example There was a difference in what someone could have had as a profile behind closed doors. Society's perception of the individual was more important for the morality of the situation. All evidence, which was collected before the trial showed that she could have killed her parents as it was circumstantial. She was judged on a legal technicality. The purpose of this paper is to prove you that only one side of this issue can be accepted. Time will be spent explaining the family dynamics, showing the initial interrogation, and the trial. The paper will conclude with the personal assumption that she did not have the psychological profile to be a serial killer. Before 1860 both daughters lived as spinsters in the Borden house. Those who were raised in the rising social and financial class moved out of the area. If a family stayed, their girls only were able to meet working class men, which was a social problem for Victorian women at the turn of the century. Mr. Borden refused to move even tho ugh he had risen to the upper classes of society. He had started as an undertaker and moved up to a business owner. His daughters could not find anyone who corresponded to their social status. At 32, it would be impossible for Lizzie ever to get married (Whiteman). There were many spinsters in their neighborhood who they socialized with. Their father contributed to the dynamics by refusing to refurbish their house with the proper amenities. He refused to connect to the sewer or to the water system. He refused to use anything other than kerosene lamps. (Masterson 38). Lizzie complained to her father constantly about the living conditions. Lizzie was quoted as embarrassed to have friends over to the house. It was an oddity that all the doors of the house were locked with keys. They had previously been burglarized on two different occasions. (Lizzie.com) His daughters had their own private entrance to their rooms and often ate by themselves. Their house appeared to be a maze. Lizzie on ly social life was with the Church's women's group. She also taught at Sunday school. This is somewhat incongruous with her home life. She appeared to be socially accepted because she was allowed to teach at school. She and her sister lived an isolated life without the amenities which they deserved to have. Some say she lived on a yearly stipend but others say she received anything she asked for. Lizzie lived a boring and depressing life with no outlook of it ever improving, a common social problem for New England Upper class women in the 19th century (Roggenkamp 67). Emma also lived under the same roof without any potential for a future. Total frustration was their sort in life. None of them got along with their step-mother or their father. There were always disputes. That particular day, they had all been suffering from food poisoning and the maid had become furious for having to clean the windows in the sweltering heat. More will be said further on about the family dynamics. It w as a common social ethic of the end of the Victorian era (19th century) that women could not possibly have the thought, or the strength to do such a heinous crime. Was she hiding for somebody else or for everybody because of the living conditions? If she knew the guilty person, she eventually could say, if she had to. (Brown Interview) Because of this preconception of the marble like statue of women, she was denied with counsel at her first questioning as she was told she did not need it.(Lizzie.com) At the first
Saturday, November 16, 2019
German Expressionism Essay German expressionism is one of the most fundamental movements of early cinema. With its basic foundation stemming from the creation of the Universum Film AG in 1917 by the German government, expressionism found a happy home in Germany until, arguably the late 1920s (Wolf). Expressionism changed the canvas of cinema with its technical innovations as well as its impact on Hollywood, not only with its borrowing of ideas, but with the emigration of German actors, writers, and directors to Hollywood, such as Murnau and his creation of Sunrise (Welsh, 98). American films at the same time as this movement in Germany were based in realism, with very distinct ideas of good and bad, comedy, and aesthetics. German film was seen as highly compound, with thick, perplexing stories that were more solicitous instead of being superficial. The notable works from this movement have been time tested references to the rise of cinema, and have been looked upon for reference in film genres in later years not only because of the innovation and place in history, but also for the overt artistic styling that has been difficult to match since. It seems as though German cinema, almost all together must be discussed in its own category. Just as French cinema, historically speaking, Germany has seemed to keep at least a somewhat independent cinema culture from that of Hollywood and its beginnings are either independent from Hollywood or influencing for the most part. Although its beginnings were earlier, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the period roughly between 1897 and 1908, motion pictures in Germany had graduated from a side-show novelty to a fast developing form, if not of art, then certainly of popular entertainmentÃ¢â¬ (Figge, 308). By 1909, however, hundreds of new cinemas were offering longer and more cohesive programsÃ¢â¬ , which laid the groundwork for the progressive technical explosion that was the Expressionist movement (Figgins, 308). Germany reached a height in silent cinema in the 1920s, the time after World War I (Wexman 38). This was a national time of crisis with most of the culpability of the Great War being put on Germany not only politically, but more enduringly and impactfully, economically; this created discord in the sociopolitical environment. Due to such social upheaval, film as seen as an expression of Ã¢â¬Å"counter activityÃ¢â¬ to the state of affairs in Germany (Wexman, 38). German expressionism is one of the more major film movements which helped mold the face of early cinema, and has had enduring impacts on the horror genre, film noir and is even seen trickling into modern day cinema. The innovations that came along with this movement are astounding, especially given the modicum of improvement in physical film itself, which one could argue, were brought about by the mass creative and artistic movement expressionism fundamentally is. Some of these technical aspects include a highly subjective and dynamic camera, design innovations including staging and set designs, and being the first movement to actually implement scripting of films (Dilman). Telltale signs of expressionism are the use of backlighting to create a sense of dimensionality and montage, and splicing the film together to make the story be more seamless and continuous, which was also a style used by the Soviet film movement (Figge, 313). Some of the indications of expressionism seem to be the anti-heroism, the complex philosophical and psychological plots and primarily urban settings. The scenes are intentionally shot to look staged, creating an alternate reality on screen with its highly geometric scapes, tilted stages, clashing vertical and horizontal lines and overshadowing. Indeed as Warm said, Expressionist film is art come to life (Wexman). Historical and mythological themes are very telling of this movement, as are abstract story lines that seem philosophically or psychologically provoking, fantastic ideas, and Ã¢â¬Å"careful visual patternsÃ¢â¬ (Wexman 40). Mythology obviously had an influence on Metropolis, as the machine in the film turns from robot into a pagan god, demanding the sacrifice of the workers. This constructs the notion that the machine is more important than the lives of the machinists, the way urban culture existed in the moment, machine is more important than man; progress is the most important idea in society, replacing a sense of community and order of nature. This idea of a crisis of modernity influenced many films in Germany throughout the 1920s. The idea of urban life being pitted against rural life is the subject of Sunrise, giving the audience the choice between the naive and desirable maternal figure in opposition to the fast, dark, evil Ã¢â¬Å"VampÃ¢â¬ woman from the city, embodying urban culture and its certain destruction of current livelihood. This again reiterates the theme of the unavoidable but unwanted nature of modern, urban life in opposition to the much-desired rural, complacently comfortable setting that was more trusting. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is seen as the height of expressionism (Welsh, 98). Without exaggerating, it is impossible to discuss expressionism without discussing Caligari, not just for the film advancements, but because it seems to be one of the most artistically set films of the time as well as being one of the truly first expressionist films to be made (although it is not the first), Caligari was, in an important sense, a blind alley for German films of this period, because it sought its identity outside the inherent possibilities of the film medium. In spite of the use of irises, medium shots, and crosscutting, it remains essentially theatricalÃ¢â¬ ¦The point is significant, because at this time the question was being asked, Ã¢â¬ËWhat can the movies do that the theatre can not do? Ã¢â¬â¢ Caligari provided no clear answer to this challenge. (Figgins, 310-311) All of the characters are highly psychological, some being downright neurotic. This can be evidenced by the blurring of the lines of good and evil, the questioning of sanity and the feeling of helplessness of the main characters in the film, most notably, the Somnambulist who has absolutely no control over his doing. By being out of control, he can be seen as evading all of his worldly responsibilities, one can excuse his behavior (read: murdering of innocent townspeople) because it is not he who has the intention, but rather is being compelled into this anti-social behavior. With this in mind, it is easy to see expressionism being a symptomatic artistic release, emerging out of a post-war world turned upside down, where one must question their morals due to justification of war (especially because Germany was involved with unrestricted submarine warfare during World War I), and coming to terms with shouldering the majority of the responsibility for the casualties. Themes of expressionism carried over into HollywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s birth of the American horror genre of the 1930s, with itÃ¢â¬â¢s expressionist camera angles, movements, overly dramatic makeup and lighting, fantastic subjects and the feeling of chaos, a sense that the world in spinning out of control. Many of these themes have seemed to have lasting impacts, and were characteristic of many Alfred Hitchcock films. While Hitchcock favored tight scenes, he still preferred to give the audience a sense of unease with his camera movements, creatures, and most definitely, chaos. However, it is certain that Hitchcock is more characteristically modernist, with his angles and restoration of the disharmony of his films. Film Noir is another genre that seemingly stemmed out of expressionism. The use of stark contrasts of shadows and the obscurity of faces and landscapes is showing of expressionist qualities. The disorientation brought on by the camera direction style also echoes the disorientation, which was popular in the movement. The protagonists seem to be flawed, which is also a mirrored quality, exemplified by the main character in Sunrise, who has no issue initially with his infidelity or thoughts of murdering his wife to be able to be with the Vamp from the city. The urban settings of Noir films also seem to be reminiscent of German film themes of the 1920s (Naremore 12, 26). In fact, one might argue that Film Noir is basically expressionism revisited, keeping in line with most of the expressionist qualities, save the more stark landscapes and police themed-ness of the melodramas. Modern day directors still use themes and techniques associated with the Expressionist movement. Most notably and obviously would be the ever famous Tim Burton, where commonalities and homage exist heavily. For instance, it can be argued that Gotham City in BurtonÃ¢â¬â¢s creation of Batman was modeled after the city in Metropolis, and his theme of the corrupt city is reminiscent of Sunrise. It is hard not to see the similarities of the character Edward from Edward Scissorhands and the somnambulist from The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari from the inception of the character on the screen, in the major aspects. Most likely, expressionism will seep into cinema either subtly or overtly for many years to come. German expressionism can be seen as being the influencer of genres, groundbreaking creator of overly artistic production, and arguably the art of horror film. This movement itself has helped spawn the rise of other genres and movements, and has been looked upon for stylistic and creative (admittedly sometimes hyper-creative) reference in film genres in later years due to the innovation and canvas that was created in service of the period. Indeed, German expressionism is a major film movement which helped mold the face of early cinema, but one cannot contain the ideas and art that came from this movement into the years of the 1920s and 1930s as the impact it left is seen in many later genres and generations, the horror genre, film noir and modern day cinema.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Influenza or flu is caused by RNA viruses of the family orthomyxoviridae, that affects the nose, throat, and lungs- the respiratory system. The common symptoms are: fever and respiratory problems, such as cough, sore throat,stuffy nose, as well as headaches and muscle aches. Influenza viruses are spread mainly by droplets made from people coughing, sneezing or talking while having the flu. These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people or can inhaled into the lungs. It is least common for the virus to spread by touching an infected surface then their mouth or nose. Flu viruses are divided into 3 categories, A, B, C. A and B are responsible for problems in the respiratory system that typically occurs during the winter. Influenza types C is quite different from A and B. Type C only cause mild respiratory symptom or none at all. According to CDC, no one knows exactly how many people die from the flu infection each year. There are four main reasons for this. First of all, states are not required to report influenza related deaths that are older than the age of 18. Second, se...
Monday, November 11, 2019
This paper will introduce the audience to the historical background of Hong Kong; business dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts comparing Hong Kong to the UK; financial, economic, political and social climate of Hong Kong. The aim is to provide fundamental data to assist a professional when conducting business in Hong Kong effectively but also respectfully. Hong Kong Background Hong Kong can be found on ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s south coast region bordered by the Pearl River Delta and the South China Sea. Geographically, Hong Kong has a total area of 1,104 square kilometres which include 262 outlying islands (GovHK, 2012). The population is over 7 million, with the majority speaking Cantonese though English is still widely used. Hong Kong was acquired by the British Empire from the Qing Dynasty during the first opium war from 1839-1842 (Kan, 2010). After 150 years of British colonial rule, in 1997 China resumed sovereignty over Hong Kong (U.S. Department of State, 2012). Hong Kong is under Chinese rule and the Chinese government is responsible for Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s security and foreign relations. Hong Kong, however, is recognized as Special Administration Region of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China. This ensures that Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s customs territory and economic entity are separate from the rest of China. This allows Hong Kong to enter into international agre ements on its own behalf in commercial and economic matters (U.S. Department of State, 2012). Government/ Politics The government of Hong Kong is noted to be economically liberal. Hong Kong is an autonomous special administrative region of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China. The current government executed under Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s basic law is secured in this autonomy for 50 years (GovHK, 2012). The governmental structure is directed by a chief executive and an executive council, accompanied with a two-tier system of a representative government and an independent judiciary. Economic & Financial Climate Based on rule of law, limited government, regulator efficiency, and open markets ranked by the Heritage foundation with a score of 89.3, Hong Kong is ranked as the freest global economy in 2012 and has successively kept this title for the past 19 years (Heritage Foundation, 2012). Hong Kong Ã¢â¬Å"is a Freeport with no barriers to trade; has simple procedures for starting enterprises, free entry of foreign capital and repatriation of earnings, and transparency; and operates under the rule of law (Heritage Foundation, 2012).Ã¢â¬ Hong Kong switched from an industrialized manufacturing economy to a service based economy in the 1980s (economywatch.com). Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s free market economy is built on the harbour, investments and trade (Sociology for Change, 2007). Hong Kong is dependent on international trade and finance. 92.3% to the GDP in 2009 which was contributed from the service sector (economywatch.com). The major industries in Hong Kong are textile/garment, banking/financial services and tourism. Hong Kong is the third largest distributer of garments in the world. In 2008 Hong Kong exported $40 billion US dollarsÃ¢â¬â¢ worth of textiles and garments which is 11% of the territoryÃ¢â¬â¢s total exports (economywatch.com). In the financial sector, Hong Kong has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 10th largest security exchange, with a market cap of $2.7 trillion (GovHK, 2012). At the end of 2012 there were 1,533 companies listed as trading on the Hong Kong stock exchange (SEHK). In 2009, 2010 and 2011 Hong Kong was listed as the highest ranking market for IPOÃ¢â¬â¢s (GovHK, 2012). Looking at Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s banking industry at the end of 2012, there were 154 licensed banks, 20 restricted licence banks and 25 deposit-taking companies. These banks come from 34 countries and include 69 out of the 100 worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest banks (GovHK, 2012). Conducting Business Hong Kong vs. United Kingdom Introduction This section will inform the reader on both Hong Kong and the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s etiquette and protocol relating to business practices. I will concentrate on how business meetings are conducted, how business decisions are made and how negotiations are conducted in the business realm while integrating HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural theory. I will conclude with possible challenges and pitfalls that should be considered if the Ã¢â¬Å"dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢tsÃ¢â¬ fall short or turn out to be limited. Hong Kong Pre-departure Info Working Practices Prior to flying over on a business trip to Hong Kong, it is suggested that one ought to understand the common business practices. Confucianism is entrenched within Chinese philosophy and plays a strong influence on the importance of social relations that Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s people are known for. So when we look at Ã¢â¬Å"the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members,Ã¢â¬ which defines the Individualism dimension, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not shocking to see Hong Kong as a collectivist culture, where people tend to think of the groups interests rather than their own personal objectives. In Hong Kong a large number of businesses are family owned and itÃ¢â¬â¢s normal for family members to work for the same companies (cummunicaid.com). Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s daily business hours are from 9am to 5pm with a lunch break from 12noon to 2pm (communicaid.com). When scheduling a business trip to Hong Kong you should avoid the holidays. Vacations are usually scheduled around the weeks surrounding Christmas, Easter and the Chinese New Year; most business are typically closed during these periods (cummunicaid.com). After you plan your business trip in accordance to that criterion, itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to schedule appointments in accordance to their customs, noting that punctuality is important and that tardiness could be considered disrespectful. Taking that further, reputation also known as Ã¢â¬Å"concept of faceÃ¢â¬ explained as the adherence to proper honourable ethical and social norms of a society in all situations and times is also something the Hong Kong society considers highly during business practices (cummunicaid.com).When making appointments they should be scheduled in advance to your arrival and in some cases one to two monthsÃ¢â¬â¢ notice is a courteous (cummunicaid.com). Organizational Hierarchy in Hong Kong Companies Hong Kong is a high power distance culture and we can point out that hierarchy is ingrained in the business culture. In Hong Kong, companies clearly define the line of authority with the distance between superiors and subordinates which are constantly maintained (cummunicaid.com). Men still dominate the workforce although in the recent years women are becoming more active. Some say this is because of the Western influence of equality (cummunicaid.com). In Hong Kong itÃ¢â¬â¢s imperative to maintain harmony and avoid conflict in a group atmosphere. In the public atmosphere of Hong Kong, the people always keep calm, show no emotion and refrain from criticising out in the open. This compliments Hong KongÃ¢â¬â¢s slightly male dominated society. Hong Kong is a success oriented and driven society, where it is not uncommon for people to spend many hours at work. Conducting Business Standard business attire for men would be dark colored suits and for women dark colored suits with trousers or skirts (cummunicaid.com). When greetings take place, itÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional to both give a Chinese bow and a Western handshake. Keep in mind that you address them with their title and last name, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a group setting the most senior person should be greeted first (cummunicaid.com). Hong Kong people are keen on building relationships, so small talk should be expected and if you are offered an invitation to a social event you should never reject that opportunity (cummunicaid.com). Moving forward to the exchanging of business cards, one is expected to exchange business cards with two hands and accepting it also with two hands. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s courtesy to examine the card for a few moments reading it to familiarize yourself with the name and the title, before placing the card in your pocket (cummunicaid.com). When negotiations take place one must expect for the deals to move at a slow pace and must avoid losing composure for this will damage ones reputation also known as Ã¢â¬Å"losing faceÃ¢â¬ (kan, 2000). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not uncommon for an astrologer or a feng shui practitioner to determine a singing date if a contract is on the table (kan, 2000). Fred Kan also highlights that if a colleague sucks air through their teeth while youÃ¢â¬â¢re speaking, this signifies they are unhappy and its best to try and reiterate or adjust your position. After the business deal has been presented the decision usually arrives from a group consensus, but leaving the top of the company having the last to say (cummunicaid.com). Table Etiquette In Hong Kong itÃ¢â¬â¢s common for business transactions to take place or end up at the dinner table. If invited to dinner expect alcohol to be present. If your host decides to make a toast itÃ¢â¬â¢s customary for you to follow up with your own toast which should consist of good health and prosperity (cummunicaid.com). Meals are often served family-style and you are encouraged to try everything, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t take the last piece as this can be seen as selfish gesture. United Kingdom Pre-departure Info Working Practices Distinguished for its constitutional monarchy, rich history of the colonial empire and deeply ingrained traditions, the British Empire now known as the United Kingdom is a culturally and ethnically diverse nation that is made up of four countries. Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland and England comprise the United Kingdom. The UK is a member of the European Union and currently is ranked fourth in trading within Europe. British culture is known for its indirectness, Ã¢â¬Å"stiff upper lipÃ¢â¬ and dry humour. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a common communication style in the UK that direct questions are often answered with indirect answers filled with ambiguous subtleties which forces one to pay close attention to tone of voice and facial expression to fully understand the response given (communicaid.com). Displays of emotion, positive or negative should be avoided in public space. The term Ã¢â¬Å"stiff upper lipÃ¢â¬ describes the British portrayal of reserve and restraint when faced with difficult s ituations (communicaid.com). Humour a key component to the culture of the British life style and is commonly used as a defence mechanism (communicaid.com). Organizational Hierarchy in British Companies In the work environment, the British are known to be formal. In the past, the British preferred to work with colleagues and companies they knew of, however the younger generation of business professionals do not require any form of relationship in order to begin business. Networking and building strategic relationships are the fundamental to long-term success in the UK. Superiority is respected, although colleagues gravitate to people at their own level to work with directly. This hierarchy can be notated as Ã¢â¬Å"flatÃ¢â¬ where the principal divide is between managers and other ranks (communicaid.com). The board of directors are the key decision making group and managers are understood to be the coaches creating a supportive working environment (communicaid.com). Conducting Business In the professional atmosphere men should be dressed in a dark colored suit and women should wear either a business suit or a conservative dress (communicaid.com). Upon the initial meeting it is common to shake hands with everyone upon arrival and maintain steady eye contact during the greeting. I must highlight that one should wait until given permission to move onto a first name basis. Under special circumstances if youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the presence of someone who have been knighted then they are to be called Ã¢â¬Å"SirÃ¢â¬ followed by their first and surnames (communicaid.com). Also during the initial greeting itÃ¢â¬â¢s common for professionals to exchange business cards and may be placed into the pocket after having just a momentÃ¢â¬â¢s glance. There are no rituals when exchanging business cards in the UK. When a meeting is conducted, depending of the level and status of the people attending, it will dictate how the meeting will commence. A free flow meeting usually occurs when everyone is at the same level, if there is a senior ranking person in the room, then they will do most of the speaking. Meetings are usually formal with a set agenda identifying the purpose. In British culture it is suggested that, when presenting to a group, one must make sure to be prepared with facts; relying on facts is more stable than emotions (communicaid.com). After concluding the meeting it is customary to send a printed summary containing the next steps which are to be taken in a letter to the attendees. The British are known to follow established rules and practices which make the decision process a slow systematic one (communicaid.com). When dealing with the British in business negotiations patience will be required. Communication will also be one area to focus on. The British communicate in a controlled fashion and only rarely raise their voices to make a point (kats, 2008). The level of directness depends on the strength of the relationship, education and status. Vague statements that may be difficult to understand are common when communicating with the British. Lothar Kats explains it best when identifying the Ã¢â¬Å"British are masters of understatement and often use subtle ironyÃ¢â¬ Contrast: Hong Kong vs. UK After reviewing both Hong Kong and UK there are a few similarities and a few differences. In Hong Kong traditional values of respect to hierarchy, the exchange of business cards and developing a personal relationship are cornerstones within their society. Whereas in the United Kingdom building personal relationships was once a tendency that no longer exists; the younger generations move forward and start the business process. When dealing with the British in business one must pay close attention to the conversation. The tone, eye contact, and understated response can commonly lead to a misunderstanding if one is not paying close attention. It is therefore best to not underestimate the importance of humour in the British business environment (communicaid.com). The hierarchy in Hong Kong is clearly defined with ample distinction between subordinates and superiors. Contrastingly, the UK is known for a Ã¢â¬Å"flatÃ¢â¬ structure where most business is usually dealt with by colleagues of the same level. Taking a glance into the integration of women in the work place we see the UK with comparable numbers men to women while in Hong Kong the introduction to women in the work place is a recent occurrence. Comparing the two nations in regards to how a professional is to book a business appointment we see in Hong Kong itÃ¢â¬â¢s common to make an appointment one to two months in advance unlike the United Kingdom its common for just giving several daysÃ¢â¬â¢ notice. In conclusion, we can see that it is vital for one to do background research on the business norms prior to jumping on a plane to conduct business internationally. Cultural Intelligence Elisabeth Plum defines cultural intelligence as the ability to act in an appropriate way in multicultural situations coupled with the ability to have an open mind which admits new information and is curious about diversity. Cross-national work is an example of cultural intelligence, and when an organization needs to join forces and partner with other businesses in other countries to keep business efficient it important to prevent conflicts. As discussed earlier in this paper itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to understand the culture that youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing business with. In order to have successful negotiations in the international market place the smallest misunderstanding could have a negative outcome. Looking to Hong Kong, if a professional arrives dressed in white or in blue colors to a meeting and speaks out of turn that could essentially dissolve any hope of a business deal, as the Hong Kong society associates white and blue with mourning and speaking out of turn shows disrespect for the power structure.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The writer with whom I felt rapport was presenting his argument in a clear and consistent way, backing each point with relevant and sufficient evidence. The writer did not attempt to manipulate the reader, and the text contained no apparent bias. On the contrary, a writer who employs every trick to persuade the reader seems far less credible. WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility ca be analyzed through the prism of three classical modes of persuasion Ã¢â¬â Ethos (appeal to authority), Pathos (appeal to emotion), and Logos (appeal to logic), as suggested by Aritotle (1989).As concerns Ethos, audience tends to believe speakers that elicit respect and demonstrate their credibility. Personal qualities that render speakers such credibility encompass a sense of wisdom (phronesis), goodwill (eunoia), and strong moral character (arete). Pathos, for its part, implies that a speaker possesses the ability to arouse strong feeling and emotional reactions in his or her listeners. While Aristotle acknowl edges the importance of the aforementioned modes of persuasion, he strongly deems that Logos is the most important and effective.Logical corollaries and evidences presented in a clear and consistent manner should persuade the reader of the effectiveness of the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis rater than authorÃ¢â¬â¢s impressive credentials or emotional appeal. No doubt, writerÃ¢â¬â¢s qualification and expertise play a role, yet well structured argument is of greater importance to me. I would rather believe a talented university student offering an interesting and well researched thesis than a world famous professor arguing that global warming is a myth. Therefore, the most important aspects of persuasive writing are logic, evidence, and structure.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
5 School Signs That Earn an F 5 School Signs That Earn an F 5 School Signs That Earn an F By Mark Nichol Everyone has an eye-rolling story about a teacher who misspelled words on the chalkboard or on printed assignment sheets, but a schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s marquee is too often is the scene of the crime when it comes to high-profile errors, too. The following photos document such transgressions. Sometimes, these letter kits lack enough letters to go around, or some get lost, and ingenuity prompts the letterer to improvise with a letter that looks similar to one thatÃ¢â¬â¢s missing. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one of those times or it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been. The person who posted this sign obviously didnÃ¢â¬â¢t heed the advice. The statement reads awkwardly, too; I would have written, Ã¢â¬Å"Exercise your mind: Read.Ã¢â¬ Maybe the letter set lacked a colon, but they could have used a dash instead. (But they probably would have mistakenly used a hyphen, resulting in Ã¢â¬Å"Use your mind-read.Ã¢â¬ ) Too bad the person responsible for posting this sign didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take a Ã¢â¬Å"seconndÃ¢â¬ look at the negating note. And using hyphens as a decorative motif was ill advised. What HDJ has a Ã¢â¬Å"nackeÃ¢â¬ for is not paying attention to the little things like how to spell knack. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to give HDJ the benefit of the doubt and assume that this photo was taken immediately after the sign was posted, and that it was immediately corrected. But how many of you have seen errors like this go uncorrected day after day? Imagine the blushes Ã¢â¬â¢nÃ¢â¬â¢ chuckles at this event. The people responsible for posting these signs are administrative staff or, in the case of a sign like this, which requires a ladder for access, likely a custodian who are often less well educated than principals and teachers, but arenÃ¢â¬â¢t they provided with a memo or at least a handwritten note showing the exact wording (and lettering)? Guess not. Question: WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s worse than misspelling a word on a school sign? Answer: Misspelling the word spelling on a school sign. Done. The images above are coming from the Writers Keep and English Fail Blog. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:5 Uses of InfinitivesTaser or Tazer? Tazing or Tasering?20 Ways to Cry
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Abuse of elderly - Smart Custom Writing French architectureReliable history of French architecture begins with the Middle Ages, from the XI century, as reliable information about the earlier Celtic and Frankish cultures did not survive. In France, mainly in the south, in Provence and Dauphine, the remains of temples of the Gallo-Roman period are saved. Among numerous places of worship and fantastic beauty are two buildings Ã¢â¬â Chartres Cathedral and Pantheon. From the point of view of Art History these masterpieces attract universal attention. For this paper just these very buildings were chosen because of great popularity, unique history, out of the ordinary design etc. All these factors make the work given unusual, interesting for readers and informative for those who studies Art History. As France is home to the Gothic style, it is considered that foundation is the church architecture, French Gothic reaches its peak in the era of "rayonnat" style, vivid example of which is the cathedral of Chartres; Pantheon, in tu rn, is one of the most magnificent buildings in Paris of neoclassical style. This significant difference, which is expressed in design, materials, technology, lay-out, decoration and function was the reason for writing such paper. It also can be considered as a comparative characteristic among the reasons of showing the interest to this topic. Chartres Cathedral shows the highest achievements of Gothic architecture. The three-building plan is a Latin cross with a short three-nave and transept deambulatory. The eastern part of the temple has several semi-circular radial chapels. Three of them were markedly in favor of the boundary of semicircle deambulatory, the four other are less deep. At the time of construction the vaults of Chartres Cathedral were the highest in France, which was achieved through the use of based on the abutment of flying buttresses. Additional flying buttresses supporting the apse, appeared in the XIV century. Chartres Cathedral was the first in the construction of which was used this architectural element, which gives it a completely unprecedented external shape, increased the size of windows and the height of the nave (36 feet). Feature of the appearance of the cathedral are its two very different towers. 105-meter spire of the south tower built in 1140 is in the form of unpretentious Romanesque pyramid. North tower of 113 feet has a base, the remainder of the Romanesque cathedral and the spire of the tower appeared at the beginning of the XVI century in the style of Flamboyant Gothic. Chartres Cathedral has nine portals, three of which have survived from the old Romanesque cathedral. Northern portal dates from the year 1230 and contains a sculpture of the Old Testament characters. South Portal, created between 1224 and 1250 years, using stories of the New Testament to the central composition, dedicated to Judgment. Western portal of Christ and the Virgin Mary, popularly known as the Royal, is dated 1150 and is known for depicting Christ in glory, established in the XII century. Entrances to the north and south transepts are decorated with sculptures of the XIII century. Total decorations of the cathedral ha ve about 10,000 sculptures of stone and glass. On the south side of the cathedral are astronomical clock of the XVI century. Before the failure of the mechanism in 1793, they showed not only time but also the day of the week, month, time of sunrise and sunset, moon phases and the current zodiac sign. The shape of Pantheon is also the cross (pic. 2). It is located on top of the hill of Saint Genevieve. Pantheon is a temple with a large dome, built in honor of the patroness of Paris, St. Genevieve. It was built in 1758-1789 under the project of Soufflet in the heart of the Latin Quarter. During the French Revolution, it was decided to use it as a shrine to the outstanding French. It is a huge structure: its length of 110 meters, width 82 m, height 83 m. crosswise building is topped by a huge dome. Huge powerful facade, on the pediment is the famous inscription Ã¢â¬Å"AUX GRANDS HOMMES LA PATRIE RECONNAISSANTEÃ¢â¬ ("Grateful motherland to great people"). Soufflet decided to recreate the typical Gothic architecture sensations of light, space and proportion in the classic (if not Roman) forms. To this end, he took advantage of the plan in the form of a Greek cross, the nave and chapels which were designed as a system of flat arches and semicircular arches, supported by rows of colu mns in the interior. Bulk composition of the building develops the idea of central-domical facilities, of having in terms the outlines of a Greek cross. Central dome rises to a height of almost 120 m. Its goal in this project was the combination of strict regularity and monumental Romanesque vaulted ceilings with graceful ease of supporting columns and freestanding Corinthian columns. In its plan the church had the form of a Greek cross, with a facade placed huge temple pediment. Free-standing columns were unable to maintain the dome of the building, and it eventually had been propped up. The outer surfaces of the walls almost without decoration solved using the classical contrast of dismembered and undifferentiated mass. Ã As it can be seen, both the Pantheon and Chartres Cathedral have the shape of cross in their planning and Gothic style of building in the base. No less remarkable is the interior of the Chartres cathedral. The spacious nave, unmatched in all of France, rushes to the magnificent apse in the eastern part of the cathedral. Between the arcades and rows of the upper windows of the nave is trifory, massive columns of the cathedral are surrounded by four powerful pilasters. Arcade of deambulatory surrounds the choir and altar area, which are separated from the rest of the carved wall. The wall appeared at the beginning of the XVI century and during next two centuries was gradually decorated with carved figures depicting scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin. (pic. 3) The central part of the facade has retained a heavy Romanesque wall, which is embedded in the three magnificent portals, belonging to the XII century. In the central portal of the Royal track is "Christ in Glory" - on both sides of the figure of Christ are fantastic winged animals and beneath them is a wide belt with sculpted figures of saints. In the central p ortal of the south facade you can see the relief of "Judgment Day" (about 1210-20), differing with forms of generosity and deep spirituality of the images. It is considered as one of the best reliefs the heyday of the Gothic (pic. 4). In the center of the cathedral floor is designed as a circle inscribed in the "labyrinth" - figured laying of multicolored stones, which has been preserved only partially. The circle has a diameter of 12.89 meters and the length of the labyrinth is 261.5 m. The size of the labyrinth is almost identical to the size of the window rose of the western facade, and the distance from the western entrance to the maze is exactly equal to the height of the window. (pic. 5,6) Chartres Cathedral is one of the few Gothic cathedrals of France, who kept almost unchanged its glazing. It is decorated with stained glass of 12-13 centuries, occupying an area of about 2600 sq.m., it is the largest extant ensembles of stained glass of that era. In the cathedral there are 146 stained glass windows, which, except for some figures are shown in 1359 different story. (pic. 7) Stained glass windows decorate with "roses" of the main transept. Stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral are extremely intensity a nd purity of color and range of subject images. Along with scenes from the Old and New Testaments, the prophets and saints - they take advantage of the upper band Ã¢â¬â at the bottom is about a hundred scenes from the life of kings, knights, artisans, who sacrificed stained glass windows in the cathedral, and one of the "roses" is dedicated to the peasants. Particular performance skill, memorable power of the image are windows depicting the Virgin Mary, stained window with scenes from the life of St. Evstafy and a portrait of Charlemagne. The richest external and internal decorations of the cathedral have a total of about 10,000 sculptures. The cathedral has a huge carved wooden altar, which shows forty stories on evangelical issues. A distinctive feature of the stained glass windows of Chartres Cathedral is an extraordinary richness and purity of the colors, the secret receipt of which was lost. For images typical extraordinary breadth of subject matter: scenes from the Old and New Testament stories of prophets, kings, knights, artisans, and even peasants.  Chartres Cathedral is built of very durable sandstone, which is mined in quarries of Bersher, 8 km from Chartres. Some blocks of stone in the cathedral walls are 2-3 feet long and a meter in height. Columns of the Pantheon create a prospect of a spectacular interior, richly decorated and refined with classical ornamentation and relief. The building is perceived as a monument to enlightenment, a bright mind, citizenship. Soufflet really managed to reach the Gothic lightness in classic guise. Numerous sculptures and murals on the walls are devoted to the history of St. Genevieve - the memory of a time when the building was of her name. To the central dome a huge Foucault pendulum showing the rotation of the Earth is suspended. Staircase at the entrance to the temple leads to the "pronaos" (porch) with 22 columns, which support the pediment. On the pediment is sculpture of the allegorical story of David d'Anzhera 1831, representing France, between Freedom and History. The walls are decorated with frescoes, the most famous of which are scenes from the life of St. Genevieve, executed by Puvis de Chavannes. The crypt, which is located under the church, keeps the ashes of many famous p eople: here the tomb of Victor Hugo (placed here in 1885), as well as the tombs of Emile Zola, Voltaire, Soufflet, Carnot and Mirabeau. 425 steps lead to the summit of cathedral, where magnificent panorama of the city is opened to the eye. At the exit from the Parthenon the semi-circular area with two symmetrical buildings on the right and left overlooks, and stretching far out Soufflet street between them with rising above the Eiffel Tower in the distance. Such a triumph of symmetry arose here at the behest of Soufflet, which was concerned not only about building the church, but also the spectacular organization of space around it.  To understand the function and value of construction of these buildings we need to turn to history. At the place of modern Chartres Cathedral were a lot of the churches. From 876 year the Holy Shroud of the Virgin Mary is kept in Chartres. Instead of the first cathedral, burned down in 1020, a Romanesque cathedral with huge crypt was built. He survived a fire in 1134, which destroyed almost the entire city, but was badly damaged in a fire of June 10, 1194. From the fire, made by lightning, survived only towers with the western facade and crypt. Miraculous escape from the fire of the sacred shroud was considered a sign from above, and prompted the construction of a new, more ambitious building. Chartres Cathedral preserved to this day virtually untouched. It escaped the devastation and plunder, was never restored and rebuilt. As to the Pantheon, it is of no less value. The Pantheon was built in 1758-1789 under the project Soufflet in the heart of the Latin Quarter. The building is conceived as the Church of St. Genevieve, but already in 1791 it was decided to turn the building into the Pantheon, a monument to the great men of France. In two-plus centuries this building became a classic, which was followed and subverted by next generation of architects. For the Baroque, with its pomp, pretentiousness and decorative fancifulness, the return to the strict simplicity of ancient Greece was almost a shock. Therefore, the project angered conservatives and delighted progressives. Soufflet decided to join in its creation the best achievements of world architecture, accumulated by that time. He created a magnificent six-Greek portico, crowned with a dome building, which the ancient Greeks did not know, made the interior a light and bright, as in the Gothic style but used vaulted ceilings of Romanesque. 5 Ã Coming to conclusion we can say that both buildings are of great historical value and have a lot in common: both are cathedrals (in first planning), the lay-out is cross-formed shape with decorations and elements of corresponding era, decorations and frescos depict the scenes from the life. Architectural images are less unique, embody not private, transitory "spirit of the times", but more typically, the leading art sights and tastes of society. These qualities determine the value of outstanding architectural monuments as a historical source: they bring to us in its content not random, but typical, not private, but the main feature views of the era.